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IWA - Ponds Technology

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  • Treatment of Wastewater by Pond Technology using Granular Sludge

    R. Pishgar1*, J. H. Tay1, R. A. Hamza1

    1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 Canada

    (free)

    This study investigated the feasibility of using freeze-dried granular sludge in lagoon basins for reducing the treatment interval. Series of […]


  • Solids-Free Sewer and Ponds Provide Sustainable Sanitation for a Sri Lankan Hospital

    J. Broome1* and G. Morgan2

    1 Arup, 78 East Street, Leeds, LS9 8EE, United Kingdom 2 Arup International Development, Arup, 13 Fitzroy Street, London W1T 4B

    (free)

    International assistance following the Civil War includes a wastewater collection and treatment system for a hospital in northern Sri Lanka. […]


  • Measurement of bubble size distribution and mass transfer rate: Using optical fibre sensors in a micro-algal photobioreactor

    W.J. Nock1*, W.Z. Zhou2, Z.M. Wang2, S. Heaven1 and C.J. Banks1

    1 Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, University Road Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK 2 Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, No.2 Nengyuan Rd, Wushan, Guangzhou, 510640, China

    (free)

    This work utilised optical fibre sensors to measure bubble size distribution (BSD) of CO2-air bubbles in a 40-L photobioreactor as […]


  • High rate pond for microalgae cultivation and treatment of agro industrial effluent

    L. S. Costa1*, M. L. Calijuri1, P. P. Assemany1 and E. A. Couto1

    1 Department of Civil Engineering, Núcleo de Pesquisas Ambientais Avançadas – nPA, Federal University of Viçosa, Av. P.H. Rolfs – Campus of Federal University of Viçosa – Viçosa, MG – Brazil – Postal Code: 36570-900.

    (free)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of meat processing industry effluent for microalgae cultivation in high-rate […]


  • SANITATION ISSUES IN SOUTHERN COUNTRIES: ASSESSING THE COSTEFFECTIVENESS OF CLADOCERANS’ RECOVERY IN THE CONTEXT OF BENIN

    M. N. D. Liady1; E. D. Fiogbé1; M. P. Aina 2 and J.-L. Vasel3

    1Unité de recherche sur les zones humides. Département de Zoologie. Université d’Abomey-Calavi. 01 B.P. 526 Cotonou, Bénin 2Laboratoire des Sciences et Techniques de l’Eau. Ecole Polytechnique d’Abomey Calavi ; 01 BP 2009 Cotonou (Bénin) 3 Unité: Assainissement et Environnement. Département Sciences et Gestion de l’Environnement. Université de Liège. Avenue de Longwy, 185-B 6700 Arlon (Belgique

    (free)

    Developing countries are facing, significant sanitation problems that continue to be maintained by under investments in the sector and lack […]


  • PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF HIGH RATE ALGAL PONDS TREATING DOMESTIC WASTEWATER: BIOMASS RECIRCULATION EVALUATION

    Taynan de Oliveira Costa1*, Jackeline de Siqueira Castro1, Maria Lúcia Calijuri1, Paula Peixoto Assemany1, Eduardo de Aguiar do Couto1
    1 Department of Civil Engineering, Núcleo de Pesquisas Ambientais Avançadas – nPA, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Av. P.H. Rolfs – Campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa – Viçosa, MG – Brazil – Postal Code: 36570-900.

    (free)

    The algae biomass harvest from high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) is one of the biggest challenges with regard to the […]


  • Gaining Agency Approval for High Rate Algal Ponds for Rural Wastewater Treatment in South Australia: Lessons learned

    H. J. Fallowfield, P. Young, N.J. Cromar and N. Buchananⱡ,
    Health and Environment Group, School of the Environment, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia

    (free)

    Many rural communities in South Australia depend upon Community Wastewater Management Schemes (CWMS) for their wastewater treatment. On-site septic tanks […]


  • Does Duckweed Ponds Used for Wastewater Treatment Emit or Sequester Greenhouse Gases (GHG)?

    R. H. R. Costa1* , G. Tonon1, R. A. Mohedano1, C.C. Teles1, S. R. Aguiar1 ,P. Belli Filho1 .
    1 Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC/ CTC/ENS. Campus Reitor João David Ferreira Lima, s/n – Trindade, Florianópolis – SC. Postal code: 88040-900 – Brazil

    (free)

    Considering the problem of eutrophication in receiving water bodies, the duckweed ponds have shown a great potential for removing nutrients […]


  • Wastewater Treatment and Biomass Production in High Rate Algal Ponds: An Overview of the Study at the Western Treatment Plant, Melbourne Wate

    H.J.Fallowfield1, M.Taylor1, K.Baxter2, J. Lewis2 and N. Buchanan1ⱡ
    1Health and Environment Group, School of the Environment, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia 2Melbourne Water Corporation, 990 La Trobe Street, Docklands, Victoria, 3008, Australia

    (free)

    Two, 223m2, single pass, HDPE lined, paddlewheel mixed high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) were constructed and operated adjacent to an […]


  • Raceway operation for efficient algal biomass cultivation

    J.L. Mendoza1*, C.J. Banks1, S.Heaven1, F.G. Acién2, E.Molina2

    1 Water and Environmental Engineering Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK 2 Microalgae Biotechnology Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almeria, Almeria, Spain

    (free)

    Open raceways have been proposed as the most feasible option for the production of microalgae for biofuels and wastewater treatment, […]


  • Triggering Luxury Uptake of Phosphorus in Waste Stabilization Pond Microalgae

    Matthew Sells*, Prof Andrew Shilton, Dr Nicola Brown
    School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    (free)

    Phosphorus removal from wastewater has often been a challenge for small communities due to complexity and costs of current treatment […]


  • Performance Evaluation of 388 Full-Scale Waste Stabilization Ponds Systems with Seven Different Configurations

    M.F. Espinosa1*, M. von Sperling2 and M.E. Verbyla3

    1 Civil Engineer from the University of Cuenca, Ecuador. Master’s student in the Graduate Program in Sanitation, Environment and Water Resources of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil. Students Scholarship Program – Agreement Graduate – PEC-PG, CAPES / CNPq – Brazil. 2 PhD in Environmental Engineering from Imperial College London. Professor at the Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering at UFMG, Brazil. 3 PhD in Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida – 4202 E. Fowler Ave. ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620 – USA

    (free)

    Waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) and their variants are one the most widely-used wastewater treatment system in the world and are […]


  • Impact of the Daily Stratification/Destratification Cycle on Maturation Pond Disinfection Efficiency: A Numerical and Field Stud

    N. W. Dahl1, C. J. Lemckert1,2,*, P.L. Woodfield1, H. M. Stratton1,3, A. Roiko1,4

    1 School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia 2 Smart Water Research Centre, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia 3 School of Natural Sciences, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia 4 School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia

    (free)

    Maturation ponds are commonly used as low energy, low cost disinfection systems as part of a more complex treatment plant. […]


  • Hydrodynamic characterization of shallow unbaffled and baffled maturation ponds using a saline tracer

    R. G. Passos1*, D. F. C. Dias1, M. P. Matos1, T. E. Possmoser-Nascimento2, M. V. Sperling1

    1Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627 – Escola de Engenharia, Bloco 1 – sala 4622; 31270–901 – Belo Horizonte, Brazil 2UNESC – Integrated College of Cacoal, R. dos Esportes, 1030, B. Incra; 76965-864 – Cacoal, Brazil

    (free)

    Results of tests with saline tracers (sodium chloride) in two shallow maturation ponds treating anaerobic effluent in Brazil are presented. […]


  • Energy Transfer Model of a Facultative Pond Used For Municipal Wastewater Treatment

    Andrés M. Zapataa, Miguel Peña Varóna

    a Universidad del Valle, Instituto Cinara. Grupo GISAM. AA 25157. Cali, Colombia

    (free)

    Models using computational fluid dynamics techniques have made it possible to innovate and improve the design and operation of pond […]


  • Ecology of Duckweed Ponds Used for Nutrient Recovery From Wastewater

    Costa, R, H, R.1*; Teles, C, C.1; Tonon, G.1; Belli Filho, P.1. Mohedano, R, A.1

    1Federal University of Santa Catarina. Trindade, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina – Brazil – CEP 88040-970; Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering – Tel.: +55(48)3721-7743

    (free)

    Duckweed ponds have been recognized as a low coast and efficient technology to provide nutrient removal from wastewater and also […]


  • Dynamic modeling of a complete pond system

    G. Chauvon2, H. Jupsin1, A. Van de Wouver2, M. Von Sperling3, J.-L. Vasel1

    1 Unité: Assainissement et Environnement. Département Sciences et Gestion de l’Environnement. Université de Liège (Belgique). 2 University of Mons (Belgium) 3 Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering; Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    (free)

    In this paper we demonstrate that it is possible to develop dynamic models for complete pond systems, i.e. with various […]


  • Chemical and microbial analysis of selected waste stabilisation pond systems in Western Australia.

    Yolanta Gruchlik1*, Kathryn L. Linge1, Deborah Liew1, Cynthia A. Joll1, Andrea Paparini2, Francesco Busetti1, Una Ryan2, Keith Cadee1 and Arron Lethorn3

    1Curtin Water Quality Research Centre, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Australia 2Vector- and Water-Borne Pathogen Research Group, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, 90 South Street, Murdoch, Perth, Australia 3Water Corporation of Western Australia, 629 Newcastle Street, Leederville, Perth, Australi

    (free)

    In this paper we present data on the occurrence and removal of several anthropogenic chemicals in Western Australian Waste Water […]


  • Augmenting Canadian Lagoon-Based Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Using Granular Sludge – Case Studies

    Jonathan Lee1, Joo Hwa Tay2, Rania Ahmed Hamza2, Roya Pishgar2*

    1 Hycura, Developer and Manufacture of EGMs, 188 Arbour Stone Close NW, Calgary, AB, Canada, T3G 4T1 2 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4

    (free)

    This study addressed the treatment performance of lagoon-based municipal wastewater treatment plants inoculated by a proprietary granular sludge. The treatments […]


  • Nitrogen removal in a shallow maturation pond with sludge accumulated during 10 years of operation in Brazil

    V. A. J. Rodrigues1*, E. F. A. Mac Conell1, D. F. C. Dias1, M. V. Sperling1, J. C. de Araújo1 and J. L. Vasel2

    1 Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering (DESA), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Escola de Engenharia, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. 2 Department of Science and Environmental Management, Unit of Environment and Sanitation; University of Liege, Campus Arlon, Belgium.

    (free)

    Accumulated sludge in polishing (maturation) ponds reduces the hydraulic retention time (smaller useful volume), what could potentially lead to a […]


  • Nitrification in Pilot-Scale High Rate Algae Ponds Operated as Sequencing Batch Photo-bioreactors for Anaerobically Treated Domestic Wastewater

    A.M. Rada-Ariza1*, A. Alfonso-Martínez 1, U. Leshem 3, C.M. Lopez-Vazquez 2, N.P. Van der Steen 1 and P.N.L. Lens1

    1 Department of Environmental Engineering and Water Technology, Pollution Prevention and Resource recovery Chair, UNESCO-IHE, Institute for Water Education, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands. 2 Department of Environmental Engineering and Water Technology, Sanitary Engineering Chair, UNESCO-IHE, Institute for Water Education, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands. 3 Aquanos Ltd, 4 HaDekel st, Shoshanalt HaAmakim, 4298400 Israel

    (free)

    The concept of the photo-activated sludge (PAS) system for ammonia removal was investigated in pilot-scale high rate algae ponds (HRAPs) […]


  • Solar radiation (PAR, UV-A, UV-B) penetration in a shallow maturation pond operating in a tropical climate

    Daniel. F. C. Dias1* and Marcos von Sperling1

    1 Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627 – Escola de Engenharia, Bloco 1 – sala 4622; 31270–901 – Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    (free)

    Solar radiation is considered the primary route for disinfection of pathogenic bacteria in maturation ponds. There is scarce information on […]


  • Optimising wastewater ponds for effective pathogen removal

    L. Weaver*, J. Webber, N. Karki, K. Thomas, M. Mackenzie, S. Lin, A. Inglis and W. Williamson
    1 Institute of Environmental Science & Research Ltd., Christchurch 8041, Canterbury, New Zealand

    (free)

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) offer a sustainable and economical method of treatment for wastewater across the world. Pathogen removal mechanisms […]


  • Inclusion of pond walls to enhance solar exposure and pathogen removal

    A.L. Hawley1* and H. J. Fallowfield1

    1 Health and Environment Group, School of the Environment, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia

    (free)

    Pathogen removal in wastewater treatment ponds is limited by poor light penetration in the water column. Solar exposure is increased […]


  • Wastewater Irrigation of Energy Crops (Pennisetum purpureum) With Effluent from Waste Stabilization Pond System (WSPS)

    V. M. Saraiva1, A. L. C. Araújo1,2*, M. A. Camargo-Valero3,4

    1 Department of Natural Resources, Federal Institute for Education, Science and Technology of Rio Grande do Norte. Natal-RN, Brazil. 2 Post-Graduation Program of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte. Natal-RN, Brazil. 3 School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. 4 Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales.

    (free)

    Due to its high yield potential and calorific power, purple elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) can be used as biomass for […]


  • Microbial Source Tracking to Improve Management Options for Reusing Water Treated by Waste Stabilization Ponds

    K, Purushotorman K3, M. Christie1,3, M. Sheludchenko1,5, C. J. Lemckert1,2, A. Roiko1,4, H. M. Stratton1,3*

    1Smart Water Research Centre, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia 2School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia 3School of Natural Sciences, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia 4School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia 5University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia

    (free)

    Maturation ponds/lagoons are used worldwide as secondary or tertiary steps for wastewater treatment, and in some cases, as the only […]


  • Microalgae biofilm in soil: nitrogen loss and crop productivity

    J. S. Castro1*, M. L. Calijuri1, I. R. Assis2, P. P. Assemany1 and V. J. Ribeiro2

    1Federal University of Viçosa, Av. P.H. Rolfs – Campus of the Federal University of Viçosa – Viçosa, MG – Brazil – Postal Code: 36570-900. 2Soil Department, E-mail: igor.assis@ufv.br; vinicius.j.ribeiro@ufv.br

    (free)

    In this study, the effect of the application of microalgae biomass on the soil surface was evaluated with respect to […]


  • Solar Radiation – Driver of Innovations in Pond Design and Process Technologies

    K-U. Rudolph1*, S. Weil2, L. Fuchs3

    1CEEM – Prof. Rudolph GmbH, Alfred-Herrhausen-Str. 44, 58455 Witten, Germany; 2IEEM gGmbH at University of Witten-Herdecke, Alfred-Herrhausen-Str. 44, 58455 Witten, Germany; 3FUCHS Enprotec GmbH, Stocktal 2, 56727 Mayen, Germany

    (free)

    The article describes how solar radiation can be introduced as process dimensioning parameter in wastewater pond process design, constructions and […]


  • Optimization of microalgae cultivation in high rate ponds with biofilm growth

    L.R. Assis1*, M.L. Calijuri1, P.P. Assemany1 and E.A. Couto1

    1 Núcleo de Pesquisas Ambientais Avançadas – nPA, Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Viçosa, Av. P.H. Rolfs, Campus of Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Postal Code: 36570-900

    (free)

    This study developed a new configuration of algae cultivation, consisting of a hybrid system of a high rate pond (HRP) […]


  • Occurrence of cyanobacteria and microcystins in waste stabilization ponds in northeast of Brazil

    Araújo, F.1; Lima, W. R. de 2; Becker, V.1; Araújo, A. L. C.2, 3; Camargo-Valero M. A.4, 5

    1 Laboratório de Recursos Hídricos e Saneamento Ambiental, Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Centro de Tecnologia. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078970, Natal, RN, Brazil. 2 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Sanitária, Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Centro de Tecnologia. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078970, Natal, RN, Brazil. 3 Department of Natural Resources, Federal Institute for Education, Science and Technology of Rio Grande do Norte. Natal-RN, Brazil. 4 School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. 5 Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales.

    (free)

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins can commonly occur in waste stabilization ponds (WSP). This study evaluated phytoplankton communities in facultative and […]


  • Evaluation of treatment efficiency and duckweed production in the polishing of stabilization pond WWTP effluen

    D. C. O. Garcia1, L. L. Albertin1*, T. Matsumoto1

    1UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Engineering College of Ilha Solteira, Civil Engineering Department, Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brazil

    (free)

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of a duckweed pond in the polishing of a stabilization […]


  • Biomass recovery from algal ponds by dissolved air flotation (DAF)

    D.M. Torres1*, A.C. Brito2, R.Oliveira3, A.L.C. Araújo2,4 and M.A. Camargo-Valero5,6

    1 Department of Natural Resources, Federal Institute for Education, Science and Technology of Paraiba. Guarabira-PB, Brazil. 2 Post-Graduation Program of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte. Natal-RN, Brazil. 3 Department of Civil Engineering, Paraiba State University. Campina Grande-PB, Brazil. 4 Department of Natural Resources, Federal Institute for Education, Science and Technology of Rio Grande do Norte. Natal-RN, Brazil. 5 School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. 6 Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales

    (free)

    This work evaluated the performance of a DAF system for biomass recovery from the effluent of algal ponds used for […]


  • The application of anaerobic ponds for UK domestic wastewater treatment

    P.H. Cruddas*, B. Jefferson, E.J. McAdam

    Cranfield Water Science Institute, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, UK, MK43 0AL

    (free)

    Anaerobic ponds (APs) have the potential to provide many advantages for wastewater treatment in the UK, including low energy demand, […]


  • Modeling the Extent of Virus Removal in Waste Stabilization Ponds to Support Reuse of Wastewater

    K.J. Vannoy1*, M.E. Verbyla1, S.M. Oakley2, J.R. Mihelcic1

    1 Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave. ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620 – USA 2 Department of Civil Engineering, California State University, Chico, CA 95926 – USA

    (free)

    A literature review was used to create a database to determine the overall virus removal efficiency in individual waste stabilization […]


  • Mechanisms of naturally occurring enzymatic virus removal

    A. Inglis1* and L. Weaver2

    1 Department of Chemistry, the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, 8041, New Zealand. 2 Water, Waste and Social Group, Environmental Science and Research Ltd, Christchurch, 8041, New Zealand.

    (free)

    Adequate sewage treatment is essential for maintaining both New Zealand and global economic and sustainable existences. Treatment, such as pathogen […]


  • Inactivation and Damage on Bacteriophage MS2 by Ammonia in Human Excret

    Wakana Oishi1, Loïc Decrey2, Rui Tezuka1, Daisuke Sano1, *, Tamar Kohn2 and Naoyuki Funamizu1

    1 Division of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628, Japan 2 Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering (ENAC), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerlan

    (free)

    This study aimed to investigate the fate of bacteriophage MS2 in concentrated human urine. Bacteriophage MS2 was inactivated in concentrated […]


  • Energy recovery in high rate algal pond used for domestic wastewater treatment

    P.P. Assemany1*, M.L. Calijuri1, M.H.B. de Souza1 and E.A. do Couto1

    1Department of Civil Engineering, Núcleo de Pesquisas Ambientais Avançadas – nPA, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Av. P.H. Rolfs – Campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa – Viçosa, MG – Brazil – Postal Code: 36570900

    (free)

    High rate algal pond (HRAP) was evaluated according to its energy potential and productivity by two rates, net energy ratio […]


  • Analysis of drying from WWTP’s sludge: forced air convection and thermal infrared lamps drying

    L. S. Leite1, T. Matsumoto1*

    1 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Campus of Ilha Solteira, Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEIS-UNESP). Ilha Solteira, São Paulo-Brazi

    (free)

    The management of sludge treatment plants is an activity of great complexity and high cost, which if poorly executed, can […]


  • Associations of Human Adenovirus and F+ Coliphage with Waste Stabilization Pond Particles

    M.E. Verbyla*, J.R. Mihelcic

    Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering University of South Florida 4202 E. Fowler Ave. ENB 118 Tampa, FL 33620 – USA

    (free)

    ABSTRACT There is lack of consensus in the literature regarding the extent of virus-particle associations in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) […]


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